Physics laws are statements that describe a natural phenomenon based on repeated experiments or observations. A physics law is generally formulated as one or several statements or equations to predict the outcome of an experiment.
The laws of physics are fundamental. Many of these laws refer to theoretical or idealised systems that are hard to replicate in the real world. New laws of physics are built on existing laws and theoretical research. For example, the theory of relativity was developed by Albert Einstein in the early 1900s, and it was built on the theories that were created more than 200 years earlier by Sir Isaac Newton. In this article, we will be discussing some of these fundamental and important laws of physics.
Newton’s Laws of Motion
Newton’s laws of motion are one of the prominent laws in physics. The three laws of motion help us understand how the objects behave when standing still, when they are moving and when forces act upon them. A brief description of the laws of motion are given below:
Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia
The first law of motion states that “a body continues to be in the state of rest or uniform motion until and unless a net external force acts on it.”
Newton’s first law of motion indicates that things cannot start, stop, or change unless some force from the outside acts upon it to cause such a change. This property of massive bodies to resist changes in their state of motion is known as inertia. Due to this reason, Newton’s first law is also known as the law of inertia.
Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Force
The second law of motion states that “the acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.”
Newton’s second law of motion describes what happens to the massive body when acted upon by an external force.
Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Action & Reaction Pair
The second law of motion states that “for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.”
Newton’s third law of motion describes what happens to the body when it exerts a force on another object. The third law of motion implies the conservation of momentum.
Law of Universal Gravitation
Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that “every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.”
Newton’s law of universal gravitation explains that objects attract each other with a force of gravitational attraction. The law of universal gravitation is widely accepted, and it guides the efforts of scientists in their study of planetary orbits.
Ohm’s law is one of the primary and important laws of electric circuits. The law states that “the voltage across a conductor is directly proportional to the current flowing through it, provided all physical conditions and temperature remain constant.” Thus, Ohm’s law is used to determine the current, voltage and resistance of an electric circuit.
According to Coulomb’s law, the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Coulomb’s Law is used to calculate the distance and force between the two charges. The electric field can also be calculated using the law.